Martin Pahinui

Corrections and Additions to Dancing Cat Hawaiian Slack Key Notes:

Sonny Chillingworth - Endlessly

Track #6 - Kananaka

Tuning: G Major
Correction: Ukelele master and filmmaker Eddie Kamae recently discovered that his grandmother, Kauhai Likua Opuniu, composed this mele hula (chant or song with instrumental accompaniment and choreography based on the text) sometime in the early 1900’s. Set on the island of Maui, Kananaka mentions the Ma'a'a wind of Lahaina, and the lipoa (a delicious edible seaweed) that can be gathered offshore. It mentions the Ma'a'a wind of Lahaina, lipoa (a delicious seaweed) that can be gathered offshore, and a more generally Hawaiian scene: the moon serenely floating along the cliffs and the sensation of love.

Sonny first recorded Kananaka with his band in the 1960s for his second album, SONNY CHILLINGWORTH (Makaha 2014). This solo version shifts attention to Sonny's guitar, especially his hammer-ons and pull-offs. A hammer-on is made by plucking a note, then fretting on it to produce a second tone. Pull-off refers to plucking a string, then pulling the finger off the fret, which also creates a second tone. The G Major to G Augmented to G6 chord progression is unique to Sonny's arrangement..


George Kahumoku – Drenched by Music

Track #9 - Ho'oipoipo O Wai'anapanap

First paragraph, third sentence, the booklet reads: It inspired him to compose this instrumental melody in the old D Wahine tuning (D-A-D-F#-A-C) – the first string “C” is wrong – it should say “C#”

Correction - It inspired him to compose this instrumental melody in the old D Wahine tuning (D-A-D-F#-A-C# - from the lowest pitched string to the highest).


Cyril Pahinui - Night Moon

Track #11 - Kawaihae

Addition: This is a traditional song.


Ray Kane - PUNAHELE

Found at the back of the booklet - Album tuning updates, with the pitches of the songs added:

• 5 Song Medley: Kealoha/Papakolea/ E Huli Huli Ho`i Mai/Mauna Loa/Pua Makahala/Kealoha - Tuned down two half steps to sound in the key of F.

Hawai`i Aloha - Tuned down three half steps to sound in the key of E.

Hula O Makee - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#.

Mai`Ae I Ka Hewa - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#.

Morning Dew - Tuned down two half steps to sound in the key of F.

Nanea Kou Maka - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#.

Pauoa Liko Ka Lehua - Tuned down two half steps to sound in the key of F.

Pua Sadinia - Tuned down two half steps to sound in the key of F.

Ua Noho Au A Kupa - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#.

Wai`anae Slack Key Hula - Tuned down two half steps to sound in the key of F.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

These and all of Ray Kane’s earlier tracks are reissued on CD on Hana Ola Records [HOCD 52000], with the title THE LEGENDARY RAY KANE –OLD STYLE SLACK KEY – THE COMPLETE EARLY RECORDINGS).

Ray Kane – WA’AHILA

Track # 14 Popoki Slack Key

Addition: Ray Kane is the only one to have recorded in the unusual A Mauna Loa Tuning (E-A-E-E-F#-C#) pitched down to key of F. Mauna Loa is term for when top 2 strings are tuned 1/5 apart in which 6th interval double notes are usually played on first and thicker third string – can be played on top 2 thinnest strings, producing characteristic sweet sound that Mauna Loa tuning brings out. This unique and beautiful tuning combines the relationships of the two most popular Mauna Loa Tunings: the top two pitched strings of the C Mauna Loa Tuning (C-G-E-G-A-E), with the four bottom pitches of the G Mauna Loa Tuning (D-G-D-D-G-D), including the drone quality of the third and forth strings being tuned to the same note. This drone works for both the I chord (G Major in the case of the G Mauna Loa Tuning; A Major in the A Mauna Loa Tuning), and the V7 chord (D7 in the case of the G Mauna Loa Tuning; E7 in the case of the A Mauna Loa Tuning). Ray also recorded the song Kila Kila O Haleakala in this tuning, pitched down to the key of F, in the early 1960s on the album SLACK KEY (the Black and White album) [Tradewinds # 106 which also featured tracks by the great slack key guitarist Leonard Kwan.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

These and all of Ray Kane’s earlier tracks are reissued on CD on Hana Ola Records [HOCD 52000], with the title THE LEGENDARY RAY KANE –OLD STYLE SLACK KEY – THE COMPLETE EARLY RECORDINGS).


Moses Kahumoku -- HO'OKUKU (THE GIFT)

Found at the end of the booklet - For the whole album, Moses uses the G Major "Taro Patch" Tuning (D-G-D-G-B-D, from the lowest pitched string to the highest. Most of the songs are tuned lower than the pitch of G. - Here is the listing, with the pitches of the songs added:

Hawai`i Aloha - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#.

Ka`aha Point - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#.

Kaula `Ili - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#, and fingered in the keys of G and C (sounding in between the keys of F and F#, and in between the keys of Bb and B respectively.

Kona Kai `Opua - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#.

Laupahoehoe - Tuned down two half steps to sound in the key of F.

Le`ale`a Lihau - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#.

Lei Ka`ahumanu - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#.

Moke’s Bounce #1 - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#.

Pane Mai - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#.

Paniolo - Tuned normally to the key of G

Pauahi `O Kalani - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#.

Pohakuloa - Tuned down one half step to sound in the key of F#

Ua (Rain) - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#..

U`i Lani - Tuned down about 2 half steps to sound between the keys of F and F#.


Leonard Kwan - KE'ALA'S MELE

In the Leonard Kwan’s tuning section – below in the Other Tunings section:

Booklet reads, for the second tuning in that section:

C Mauna Loa (C-G-C-G-A-F) –the first string note “F” is wrong

Correction: the highest pitched string is actually tuned to E, not F

C Mauna Loa (C-G-C-G-A-E - from the lowest pitched string to the highest)

Track #5 - Kananaka
Correction: Ukelele master and filmmaker Eddie Kamae recently discovered that his grandmother, Kauhai Likua Opuniu, composed this mele hula (chant or song with instrumental accompaniment and choreography based on the text) sometime in the early 1900’s. Set on the island of Maui, Kananaka mentions the Ma'a'a wind of Lahaina, and the lipoa (a delicious edible seaweed) that can be gathered offshore. It also describes the moon serenely floating along the cliffs and the sensation of love. Leonard picked it up from the late Sonny Chillingworth, with whom he played on many occasions. Sonny's version changed keys from G to C and back, but Leonard stays in G and plays variations on the main theme. He remembers Sonny warmly, and feels they shared a similar attitude about music, common among traditional Hawaiian musicians. "We don't hold anything back," Leonard says. "That way you can be sociable with one another. Even now I go to Maui when my friends call me, just go to enjoy the music." Tuning: G Major (D-G-D-G-B-D).

Track # 6 Keala’s Mele

Addition: Note the soulful slides up from the C to the F chords, and back down to the C chord in verse[s]. Leonard also used this same technique in the song Sase, on his 1975 album THE OLD WAY (Tradewinds Records # 1130), in the G Major Tuning (D-G-D-G-B-D), sliding up from the G to the C chords, and back to the G chords in verses 2 and 3, and from a higher inversion G chord down to the open G chord in verse 7.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Leonard Kwan passed on in 2000.

All of the Leonard Kwan tracks from his earlier albums are reissued on CD on Hana Ola Records [HOCD 53000], with the title THE LEGENDARY LEONARD KWAN – THE COMPLETE EARLY RECORDINGS.


Keola Beamer – MOE'UHANE KIKA - TALES FROM THE DREAM GUITAR

Booklet reads: Track # 12 - 'Alekoki

Correction: Track #12 is actually called Houle Hula written in 1927 by the late, noted Hawaiian composer R. Alex Anderson (1894-1995), and it was his first hit song. The song is occasionally referred to as ‘Alekoki, because that word is in the first line of the song. Keola also recorded another piece of his in 1973, Lovely Hula Hands, on his great first album, HAWAIIAN SLACK KEY GUITAR IN THE REAL OLD STYLE. R. Alex Anderson composed about 200 songs, including the extremely popular Hawaiian Christmas song, Mele Kalikimaka.


Ozzie Kotani - TO HONOR A QUEEN - THE MUSIC OF LILI'UOKALANI

CD & booklet title reads: The Honor a Queen –-The Music of Lili’uokalani - E Ho’ohiwahiwa I Ka Mo’I Wahine.

Correction for a word in the album title: E Ho’ohiwahiwa I Ka Mo’i Wahine. The i is lower case in Mo’i.

Track #7 Paoakalani/ Ku’u Pua I Paoakalani

After the last paragraph, booklet reads: Ku'u Pua I Paoakalani has also been recorded on slack key guitar by: Cyril Pahinui in the Open C Major Tuning (C-G-C-G-C-E) for his next album on Dancing Cat.

Correction: Cyril Pahinui in the C Major Tuning (C-G-E-G-C-E – from the lowest pitched string to the highest) – the 4th string is E, not C.


Bob Brozman & Cyril Pahinui – Four Hands Sweet and Hot

Track #15 - Hilo Hanakahi – before the first paragraph

Booklet reads: Cyril: 12 string in C Major Tuning slacked to A

Correction: Cyril: 12 string in C Major Tuning (he is tuned to the pitch of C—not slacked down to A)


Bob Brozman & Led Kaapana – Kika Kila Meets Ki Ho’Alu

Track #8 - Ua Like No A Like

Addition - Note the use, arranged by Led of the VII cord, B flat which seems to be a fairly universally used chord progression in songs inspired by the ocean, having been sometimes used in surf music instrumental songs of the early 1960s, songs such as The Lonely Surfer by Jack Nitzsche , and later in 1967 in the Theme from The Endless Summer, as well as in Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar, particularly in the arrangements and compositions of Keola Beamer, such as his versions of Sweet Singing Bamboo, and Sanoe, both on his album MOE’UHENA – TALES OF THE DREAM GUITAR; and most particularly in the compositions and arrangements of the late great Bola Sete (1923- 1987), on his album OCEAN MEMORIES, especially the songs Vira Mundo Penba, Inn of the Beginning, Xengo, Xengo Xererengo, and Paradise Love Song (Black Mommy).

Track #12 - Lepe 'Ula'ula

Booklet reads – on the 7th and 8th line – Bob and Led play in G tuning in the key of C

Correction: That line should be struck and should be ignored – it should say “Led plays in Standard tuning in the key of C”, and Bob Brozman plays in the key of C in the G Major Tuning (D-G-D-G-B-D, from the lowest pitched string to the highest).”

Track #15 - Tre Moe

Correction: Title of track #15 is actually Tahiti Moe, rather than “Tre Moe”.

Addition: This song is more or less the Tahitian verson of `Opihi Moemoe [written by the late, great Hawaiian Slack Key guitarist Leonard Kwan (1930-2000)]. The song was put together by the Tahitian slack key guitarist Petiot Tauru.

Track #16 - Kalama'ula

Addition: Here again, as in song #8 is the use by Bob and Led of the VII chord, here F Major (in the key of G).


Led Kaapana – Waltz of the Wind

Track #7Koke’e

Booklet, before the first paragraph reads: - Led Kaapana: slack key guitar

Correction: Led Kaapana: Guitar – (“Guitar” rather than “slack key guitar” because the guitar is in standard tuning.

Track #14Honeysuckle Rose

Booklet, before the first paragraph reads: - Led Kaapana: slack key guitar

Correction: Led Kaapana: Guitar – (“Guitar” rather than slack key guitar because the guitar is in standard tuning.

Track #15Mockin’ Bird Hill

Booklet reads: A beautiful solo guitar rendition in C tuning, of the 1951 Patty Page hit.

Addition: The drop C tuning for Mockin’ Bird Hill is the same tuning as the open C Major Wahine Tuning listed 15 lines above (C-G-D-G-B-D, from the lowest pitched string to the highest).

Corrections - on page 14 the guitar tunings should read:

G Major “Taro Patch” Tuning (D-G-D-G-B-D) – for the songs Radio Hula, My Yellow Ginger Lei (this song is tuned down two half steps to sound in the key of F), ‘Opihi Moemoe, Les Flammes d’Enfer, and Ku’u Ipo Ona

C “Wahine” Tuning (C-G-D-G-B-D) – for the songs Yesterday, My Sweetheart, and Mockin’ Bird Hill.

“Wahine” is the name for a tuning with a Major 7th note in it, here the B note on the second string. This C “Wahine” Tuning is also referred to as “Leonard’s C” because it is frequently used by the late slack key guitarist Leonard Kwan (1930-2000)

Standard Tuning (E-A-D-G-B-E) for Koke’e, Spanish Eyes, and Hanohano Hanalei"

Led Kaapana – Led Live Solo

Track#1Salomila

Booklet, third paragraph, first sentence reads: – Led plays Salomila in a high pitched C Mauna Loa tuning (G-C-E-G-A-E, sometimes called "B flat tuning" since the lowest two pitched strings are tuned up high and the whole guitar is often tuned down to the key of B flat to accommodate this, as it is in this song).

Correction: Led plays Salomila in a high pitched C Mauna Loa tuning (G-C-E-G-A-E, sometimes called B flat Mauna Loa tuning, since the lowest two pitched strings are tuned up high and the whole guitar is often tuned down to the key of B flat to accommodate this as it is in this song)

Track#2Na Ka Pueo

Booklet reads: Second paragraph, first sentence – A frequently performed classic, Na Ka Pueo showcases both Led's dazzling fretwork in a C Wahine tuning (C-G-D-G-B-D - the guitar is capoed up to the 5th fret to sound in the key of F, and fingered in the keys of C and G, producing the sounds of the keys of F and B flat with the capo on.

Correction - A frequently performed classic, Na Ka Pueo showcases both Led's dazzling fretwork in a C Wahine tuning (C-G-D-G-B-D - the guitar is capoed up to the 3rd fret to sound in the key of E flat, and fingered in the keys of C and G, producing the sounds of the keys of E flat and A flat with the capo on.

Track #3 - He Aloha No 'O Honolulu

Booklet reads – First paragraph, second sentence - Led's instrumental version in G Major (Taro Patch) tuning (D-G-D-G-B-D) recalls his father's style.

Addition - Led's instrumental version in G Major (Taro Patch) tuning (D-G-D-G-B-D, tuned down one half step to the key of F sharp) recalls his father's style.

Track #4 Radio Hula

Booklet reads – Second paragraph, first sentence - Played here in G Major Taro Patch tuning, this was the first tuning Led taught himself.

Addition - Played here in G Major Taro Patch tuning, again tuned down one half step to the key of F sharp, this was the first tuning Led taught himself.

Track #6 - Ka'a Ahi Kahului

Booklet reads – Second paragraph, last sentence reads - Tuning: Standard tuning (E-A-D-G-B-D), played in the keys of F and C.

Addition- Tuning: Standard tuning (E-A-D-G-B-D, tuned down two half steps from concert pitch), played in the keys of C and F, therefore sounding in the keys of E flat and A flat.

Track #7 - E Lili'u E

Booklet reads – First paragraph, first sentence - Led plays this John Kaulia and Charles E. King adaptation of a traditional chant in the same C Mauna Loa tuning as Salomila.

Addition - Led plays this John Kaulia and Charles E. King adaptation of a traditional chant in the same C Mauna Loa tuning as Salomila, again tuned down to B flat.

Track #12 - Silver Strings

Booklet reads- First paragraph, first line - Led also learned this Mainland song, by Eben Rex and Hart Dankas, from Leonard Kwan's recording on Tradewinds Records

Correction - Led also learned this Mainland song, originally titled Silver Threads Among the Gold, written in 1873 by Eben Rexford and Hart Dankas, from Leonard Kwan's great and most influential recording SLACK KEY (the red album), on Tradewinds Records # 103.

Track #14 - Hi'ilawe

Booklet – First paragraph, last sentence reads - Led plays it here in Standard tuning, key of C

Addition- Led plays it here in Standard tuning, key of C, tuned down one half step from concert pitch to sound in the key of B.

Track #15 - I Kona

Addition: Played again in the C Wahine tuning (C-G-D-G-B-D, capoed on the second fret to sound in the key of D.


Cyril Pahinui - 6 & 12 Slack Key

Track # 6 - Noenoe

Addition: Note the beautiful jazz cords at the end, as influenced by one of Cyril's main mentors, the late, great slack key guitarist Leland "Atta" Isaacs (1930-1983).

In the introduction, Cyril plays these chords: B flat 9/13, to E flat 6/Major 7, to A flat 9/13, to D flat 6/Major 7, to G7.

Then after the first verse, he plays B flat 9./13, to E flat 6/Major 7, to A flat 9/13, to G7.

Then after the second verse, he plays B flat 9/13, to E flat 6/Major 7, to A flat 9/13, to D flat 6/M7, to G7.

At the end, he plays E flat 9/13 with an A flat bass, to an A flat 6/Major7, B flat 9/13 to E flat 6/Major 7, to G7, to C.


George Kuo – Aloha No Na Kupuna (Love for the Elders)

Track # 3 - KHBC

Addition: At the end of the third paragraph add: Sonny Chillingworth also used this same lick and it originally came from the great full time steel guitarist, Jake Keli'ikoa Sonny played it backing up the late singer Myra English in the standard tuning, (E-A-D-G-B-E), playing in the key of G, on her album Drinking Champagne – (Hula Records – HS452).

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